PDF download for Review of Design of Smoke Management Systems, Article ” An International Survey of Computer Models for Fire and Smoke”, Journal of Fire . Results 1 – 8 of 8 Design of Smoke Management Systems by John H. Klote; J. A. Milke and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at. considerations impacting smoke management system design, and ASHRAE text Principles ofSmoke Management (Klote and Milke ).
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We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Published by Kimberly Hall Modified over 3 years ago. IBC refers designer to Section There are no specific types of systems required by Code. Type is based on a Rational Analysis. Smoke protected seating allowances.
Full text of “Design manual for smoke control systems”
Alternate Materials and Method Requests. Timely restoration of operations. They are intended to: Manage where smoke goes and where smoke does not go. Maintain a tenable environment by limiting the spread of smoke to areas outside the zone of origin IBC They do not always maintain a tenable environment in the smoke control zone of fire origin.
Defined as mechanical systems by Code and include pressurization method, airflow method and exhaust method. When active is not feasible small rooms, no make-up air, unoccupied areas Depends upon location within zone.
May be separate zone or part of the same zone sub-zone. If entirely bounded within a zone, no pressure difference can be obtained between the active and passive zone. Leakage area ratios walls exits other shafts floors and roofs openings determined by area. Tight fitting smoke and draft control.
Gasketing – top, sides, and sill. This is to ensure the damper will not close prematurely when the system is operating in the smoke control mode.
Multiple Design Options Now Available: Natural ventilation alternative Mechanical ventilation alternative Stair pressurization alternative. Ot enclosure separated from building. Engineered system sized to provide 90 air changes per hour serving up to three vestibules simultaneously. No dampers required in system, unless engineered so.
Vestibules are not required. Beware of door opening force limitations! Consider maximum stack effect pressures, temperature gradients. Tested with all doors closed. No relief vent required at top of shaft, but may enhance system operation and balance system operation. Difficult to achieve in tall buildings with a single zone in stairway.
Ventilation system to be separate from building systems Standby power required. Exhaust can be used with the approval of the AHJ. When is one is better than the other? Pressurization — enclosed spaces, office areas, residential corridors, where no make-up air is provided. Exhaust — large open spaces atrium, mall, etc. Air Flow — protection of openings that do not have physical protection.
Twice the maximum calculated pressure differential produced by the design fire in sprinkler protected buildings. Maximum pressure dependent on door opening forces. Add up leakage area from construction, openings, including doors, to determine flow rate to achieve pressure differential. Problems Building may be tighter than calculated Oversizing fans means additional pressure Balancing with stairs Door opening forces. Some jurisdictions limit the opening force to no more than 15 lbs.
The opening force is determined by the force to overcome the closing device and the pressure against the door. The larger the door or the greater the pressure difference, the more the opening force will be. Maintain smoke 6 ft. Maximum velocity of air supply toward the fire is limited to fpm. May affect plume geometry and increase air inducted into the plume. Plume types – must consider the type: Axisymmetric Balcony spill Window.
Required to be introduced at a rate slightly less than the exhaust rate and cannot exceed feet per minute towards the fire.
As indicated before, the typical rule of thumb is to provide at least 85 percent of this make up air either by mechanical or natural means. The other 15 percent can be obtained through infiltration building leakage. Make up air for high volume rate systems can be difficult to provide given building geometry and configurations. An exhaust rate ofcfm requires up to square feet of free openings to meet the 85 percent rule. That equates to 85 linear feet of 10 foot high openings!
Make up air needs to be introduced below the smoke layer. If an exhaust system is being provided for a multi-level space such as an atrium the make up air can be introduced at multiple levels, thereby decreasing the impact of the make up air requirements for any one level.
The free area of a vent, grille, louver or door opening needs to be included in the make up air flow rate. Most grilles and louvers do not provide percent free openings. Airflow cannot exceed fpm. Must assume temperature of smoke. Not useful for large openings.
Not useful for horizontal openings. HVAC systems promote mixing of air. The Modified Airflow approach has been used under these conditions, which is essentially a purge method approach that limits the make up air to no more than feet per minute at the openings to the exterior or drive aisles.
Not very scientific but has been used in many jurisdictions. Each of the four prescribed methods of smoke control have certain limitations. Often these come to light during commissioning of the systems. The following are some of the lessons learned during these times.
It is impossible to get a pressure difference from one space to another if there is no make up air in the adjacent space. Not all small rooms will have smoke tight construction, even if xesign during the design. Leakage rates given for construction walls, whether leaky or tight will always differ in the field from calculations.
Design of Smoke Management Systems
Horizontal sliding doors that have no bottom tracks do not work well at a pressurization zone boundary. Many building materials thought to be air-tight will leak if not painted or sealed.
Air flow measurements at openings can often provide interesting results. Each jurisdiction may require or allow something different. Dexign explanation of the types of systems to be used. The methods of operation. The systems supporting them.
Syztems methods of construction to be used. The type or method of smoke control. The method to activate the system.
A description of how the system will configure.
Considerations in the Design of Smoke Management Systems for Atriums
A description of whether the system will be dedicated or non-dedicated. What devices and equipment will be monitored and in what position. Pressurized exit enclosures, passive zones or sub-zones should also be shown on these drawings.
Dampers to be monitored and which positions are monitored. Door monitoring, if required.
How fans will be separated between uses. The design criteria for time to display the various status indications. Indication by each piece of equipment fans, dampers. Alternately for complex systems, managejent by single smoke zone of all zone associated equipment. Manual switches by each equipment or by whole zone.
Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering
Stay aware of what you are doing if you throw any switch, anywhere, any time. Special Inspection is to occur: During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, zystems detection and control verification.