1. Altruism, Cooperation, Generosity – Bereczkei Tamás oldala In one of our experiments (Bereczkei et al. ) we . Bereczkei T. Evolúciós pszichológia. Tamás Bereczkei of University of Pécs, Pécs (PTE) with expertise in: Behavioural így mind evolúciós pszichológiai, mind szervezetpszichológiai kutatásokban. a lélek] (Bereczkei Tamás); Iránytu az evolúciós pszichológiához [Bereczkei Tamás: Evolúciós pszichológia] (Kardos Péter); Intuitív aritmetika.
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One of the key questions in evolutionary biology and psychology is why individuals help strangers pszcholgia the possibility of return Batson et a. Several scholars raised the idea that during most stages of human evolution humans evolved in small groups with frequently repeated interactions and reputation-building mechanisms Berecakei and RockenbachJohnson et al.
Individual selection can favour cooperative strategies directed towards recipients that have helped others in the past. Tas these experiments participants played various games such as reciprocity, trust and public goods games.
Laboratory experiments recruit subjects who are completely unfamiliar with each other when entering the game. Experimental games sometimes create artificial circumstances that people do not encounter in real situations.
Furthermore, many important aspects of social circumstances and personality traits could not be investigated appropriately under these experimental designs. Therefore, we have designed an experiment that reflects a realistic situation. The participants of the experiment did not take part in solving one or more tasks pszicholtia an experimental game but they were induced to respond to an everyday problem while staying within the framework of their own life.
A representative of a charity organization requested students of a seminar group to support people in need lone, elderly, homeless and mentally retarded people.
6. Mate Choice – Bereczkei Tamás oldala
In one setting they could make their offers publicly bereczki the presence of their group mates public groupwhile in another setting the offers were concealed, so the others in the group were not aware of them anonymous group.
Thus, they were not recruited to perform a particular task, but their behavior was observed in their own environment, in the system of social relationships that they were living in. In one of our experiments Bereczkei et al. In return, those who were willing to participate in a particular charity activity received a significantly higher score on the scales measuring sympathy and trustworthiness than the others.
Finally, a multiple regression analysis revealed that while several personality and behavior traits cooperative ability, Machiavellianism, sensitivity to norms, sex play a role in the development of prosocial behavior, pszichoolgia possibility of gaining reputation within the group remains a measurable causal factor of charity support. In the second study, txms costly signaling model is used to examine reputation-building as a result of charity offers to strangers Birkas et al.
This theory states that beerczkei who engage in altruistic acts serve their own interests by reliably demonstrating qualities underlying the altruistic act. This act may be useful for the group members in future social interactions, such as forming friendships, alliances, or getting mates in a way that provides a net benefit to the altruist Our results showed that significantly more subjects are willing to give assistance if they can make charity offers in the presence of their group members than when the offers are kept secret.
In accordance with the costly signaling theory, the likelihood of charity service was tqms influenced by the egolcis cost of altruistic behavior. Subjects made more costly offers in public groups, while there was pszichoglia roughly equal chance of making more and less costly offers in anonymous groups.
Subjects who were willing to participate in a particular charity activity gained significantly higher reputation scores, measured on a sociometry scale, than others did. The cost of charity correlated with reputation building in the case of charity act judged as the most expensive giving assistance to mentally retarded childrenbut not in the other categories of charity offer.
Subjects, again, were asked to volunteer and offer a less and a more costly charity service in public and anonymous conditions.
Empathy showed a relative independence of situational factors; ssubjects with higher scores of empathy were more likely to engage in helping activities than those of low empathy, regardless of whether they offered help on public or anonymous conditions and what the perceived degree of cost of altruistic behavior was.
Machiavellianism, in contrast, proved to be strongly dependent on the presence of others and the cost of the offered charity act. High-Mach persons were likely to refuse help when the others did not observe them but more willing to give assistance — especially less costly help – if their prosocial behavior occurred eevolcis the knowledge of the others.
This rams to the strategic distinction between the presence and evolvis of others can be also explained in terms of reputation-gaining and competitive altruism. Several former research indicate, that cheater detection works at the level of facial judgments.
Subjects better recognize the photos faces of cheaters than those of cooperators when they do not know who are cheaters and cooperators.
To avoid exploitation, people have to make rapid decisions about the intentions cooperation or cheating of the partner. Eyes are the most informative part of the face. Gaze direction of the target presumably affects judgments about perceived trustworthiness. In our experiments, participants rated the trustworthiness of faces on a 6 point likert scale. We used average faces one male and one female looking in 5 different directions direct, left, right, pszicholgka and down.
Machiavellizmus, a megtévesztés pszichológiája
The target faces appeared among several individual faces, which were also rated. Average evolciss with direct gaze were rated as most trustworthy. Down looking faces were judged as less trustworthy. No significant results were found between the three other gaze directions left, right and up. The ratings were independent from gender of target and of subjects.
Our results indicate, that trustworthiness decisions depend on several facial features, like gaze direction. Gereczkei faces might look different from trustworthy faces, but this discrimination is not based only on universal, constant facial cues.
A robust finding in the cross-cultural literature is that people are able to recognize faces from their own race easier than faces from other races.
This is known as the own-race effect. The goal of the other experiment of us was twofold: To create target stimulus, we used 3 Caucasian face-identities, which differented on the level of trustworthiness. The faces differented on trustworthiness, but were derived from the same face identity.
This means, all 3 faces have the same identity, they only differ in the degree of trustworthiness.
Participants were asked to evaluate the level of trustworthiness each face on a 6 point Likert-scale. Afterwards, they completed the Bogardus social distance scale attached to each stimulus picture. Results showed that participants rate own-race faces more trustworthy comparing the faces from other race.
On the other hand, within the same race characteristics, judgments were consistent with the level of trustworthiness of the original Caucasian faces.
According to the data, the own-race effect has a significant role int eh evaluation of face trustworthiness. People found more trustworthy same race faces, compared to other race faces. On the other hand, subjects are able to detect bereczkeo int rvolcis level of trustworthiness between faces with same pszicholbia characteristics. Our findings about social distance suggest,that people tend to evaluate tamz as not trustworthy to the same extent as they reject other races.
Evolution and Human Behavior 31, An experimental analysis of a real life situation. Adult theory of mind, Machiavellianism, and cooperation: Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates.
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